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Small springs, including some thermal springs are found in the fractured bedrock around volcanoes.Cenozoic sediments from the Pliocene and the Quaternary form a key aquifer in the Douala Basin.With tectonic activity in the Cenozoic related to the opening of the Atlantic Ocean, the Douala and Rio-del-Rey basins formed a continuous sedimentary basin from Nigeria to southern Cameroon until the Miocene.Some of the youngest sediments in Cameroon are located in the Lake Chad basin, dating to the past 2.5 million years of the Quaternary.The conglomerate and sandstone of Mudeck Formation probably formed in the Early Cretaceous and is overlain by fossil-bearing shale.There is an unconformity between the crystalline basement rock and the Mudeck Formation.

Cameroon has very active and dangerous crater lakes that accumulate and periodically release carbon dioxide causing the mass death during the Lake Nyos disaster in 1986, which killed 1700 people, as well as the deadly 1984 release at Lake Mounoun which killed 37.

During the dry season, the water table sometimes falls resulting in seawater intrusion.

The Garoua Basin and Lake Chad Basin Aquifer are also important water supplies, often with Cretaceous sandstones at the base.

Geologists have dated ring complexes to as far back as 66 million years ago or as recently 30 million years ago and they may represent heavily eroded remnants of earlier volcanoes, that intruded through metamorphic basement rock into early Cenozoic sediments.

Known as Granites Ultimes, these ring complexes extend over a span of 1000 kilometers parallel to the Cameroon Volcanic Line, which stretches from the interior of Africa to Pagalu in the Gulf of Guinea.

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