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1 for colour code), of bone gelatin of a species of herbivorous bird (Dinornithiformes: Emeidae: Euryapteryx curtus), and for Taupo lake water.Values of δ, b, c two matai (Podocarpaceae: Prumnopitys taxifolia) trees growing in the open at ‘Glenore’, Hawkes Bay, 68 km east of vent, d rimu (Podocarpaceae: Dacrydium cupressinum) tree, Fox River, Paparoa National Park, West Coast, South Island.a Relationship between median calibrated age and distance from the presumed vent: yellow, local regression, 0.6 smoothing factor; blue, linear regressions for sample median ages 60 km from vent, with 95% confidence limits; vertical broken line, limit of linear relationship between distance and age; white broken line, date of eruption from second wiggle match analysis; red, oldest; blue, youngest. Note monotonic distributions of ages on samples 60 km from the vent, with 90 % of their distributions younger than the wiggle match age.1, NZ165, on material from Arapuni, adjacent to the Waikato River; 2, NZ1059, on peat from Lake Poukawa, probability distribution (darker shading) extends well into the calibrated range of the monotonic distant ages.

We suggest that the plateauing of both Δ, for sites within 60 km from the vent (Fig. Furthermore, if the material type is considered, the wood and charcoal data sets that contain sufficient samples for age/distance relationship to be evaluated both display the same pattern of younging with increasing distance from the vent as in the aggregate data set (Supplementary Table 1).Our reinterpretation implies that ages for other proximally-dated, unobserved, eruptions may also be too old. The use of inaccurate radiometric eruption dates, particularly for events that occurred remote from contemporary literate societies, can bias a chronology and affect interpretations of data keyed to that chronology, from archaeology.The region receives about 1200 mm annual rainfall, which recharges aquifers developed in variably permeable pyroclastic deposits that are increasingly fractured with age/depth and interspersed with lacustrine or paleosol aquitards of the Taupo eruption gave a date (232 ± 5 years CE) indistinguishable from the first.Box-whisker plots (maximum, minimum, median, lower and upper quartiles; numbers, sample sizes): bone gelatin δC of leaves and wood, and between pre-industrial and present wood include the Suess Effect, fractionation between foliage and wood, and taxon differences.The Suess Effect has been factored into the values plotted in Fig. Wood δC values of these saplings, retained in the inner wood of the mature tree, could be up to 10‰ lower than those of the later rings of the mature tree, even with the leaf-wood fractionation.

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